Thursday, June 16, 2011
China is a major producer of oyster mushrooms. About 25% of the total world production of mushrooms oyster mushrooms. Oyster mushrooms / shimeji also known as a popular name and scientific name Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Stalk hood resembles oyster shells with the middle slightly concave and white to cream colored.
There are several types of oyster mushrooms and white oyster mushrooms, pink oyster mushrooms, oyster gray, brown and oyster mushrooms. Oyster mushrooms are best known and most appreciated by the public so that the most widely cultivated oyster mushrooms are white.
In the wild, oyster mushrooms can be found almost year-round in the cool mountain forest areas. Fruiting bodies are seen piled up on the surface of an already decaying tree trunks or main stems of trees had been felled.
Mushroom cultivation is relatively simple. Oyster mushroom growing medium is usually maintained with sterile sawdust packed in a plastic bag.
Usefulness of Fungi
Fungal efficacy for health is evident. Besides containing a variety of essential amino acids, fats, minerals, and vitamins, there is also an important substance that affects the medical aspect. Since centuries ago, the fungus has become a special diet so many people become fans.
It's hereditary Japanese society and China complement the menu with the mushrooms. Not only the delicacy of flavor, but also high in nutritional value. The ancient Greeks believed, eat fungi cause a person to become stronger and healthier. The result they are more powerful, brave and mighty. Pharaoh, King of Egypt, a famously nasty, heavy hobbyist eat mushrooms. So special, the king described the fungus as a food of the gods.
Not only tasty, nutritional yeast has a pretty good. Contained chemical composition depends on the type and place of growth. From the research, the average mushrooms contain 19-35 percent protein. Compared to rice (7.38 percent) and wheat (13.2 percent), it is higher protein yield. Essential amino acid found in mushrooms, some are nine types of the 20 known amino acids. What is special about 72 percent unsaturated fat, mushrooms also contain various kinds of vitamins, including B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavine), niacin and biotin. In addition to micro elements, mushrooms also contain various types of minerals, including K, P, Ca, Na, Mg, and Cu. Fiber content from 7.4 to 24.6 percent started very good for digestion. Mushrooms have a very low calorie content making it suitable for dieters.
The results of the study at Massachusetts University concluded that riboflavin, Nicotinat acid, Pantothenat, and biotin (Vitamin B) is still well maintained even though the fungus has been cooked. The results of the Beta Glucan Health Center said that the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) contain compounds Pleuran (in Japan, oyster mushrooms called Hiratake as medicinal mushrooms), protein (19-30 percent), carbohydrates (50-60 percent), amino acids , vitamin B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (panthotenat acid), B7 (biotin), Vit C and the minerals Calcium, Iron, Mg, Phosphorus, K, P, S, Zn. Can also as antitumor, lowers cholesterol, and antioxidants.
Researchers from Ujagar Group (India) expressed, that the oyster mushroom has a very good nutritional value with reason: 100 percent of the vegetables and clean; high in protein and rich in vitamins, minerals; low-carbohydrate, fat and calories; good for the liver, patients with diabetes , and lose weight; high in fiber helps digestion; antiviral and anticancer; easy to cook and easy to digest, and the oyster mushroom is a fungus that most tasty mushrooms than any other food.
From the research the Department of Science, the Ministry of Industry of Thailand, oyster mushrooms (Oyster Mushroom) have content: protein 5.94 percent, 50.59 percent carbohydrates, fiber 1.56 percent, 0.17 percent fat, ash 1.14 percent. Per 100 grams of fresh oyster mushrooms, contains 45.65 calories, 8.9 milligrams (mg) of calcium, 1.9 mg iron, 17.0 mg of phosphorus, 0.15 mg vitamin B-1, 0.75 mg vitamin B- 2, and 12.40 mg of Vitamin C. Mushrooms also contain folic acid, which is quite high, supposedly able to cure anemia.
For comparison, tempeh is made from soy are rich in fiber and also as a source of various nutrients such as calcium, B vitamins, and iron, have the following content: 204 calories, 17 grams protein, 8 grams fat, 15 grams carbohydrates, 80 mg calium, Fe (Iron) 2 mg, and 0.2 mg Zn.
Can be compared to chicken meat protein content 18.2 grams, 25.0 grams of fat, but carbohydrates and 0.0 grams of Vitamin C is also 0.0 grams. Thus, nutritional yeast is still more complete, so no one when it is said fungus is a food of the future.
Mentioned that the researchers suggest that the cancer disease should humans consume red meat no more than three ounces per day or less. The meat is beef, buffalo, goats, and pigs that can lead to higher risk as a cause of colon cancer, and also the possibility of breast, prostate, pancreas, stomach, and kidney cancer. Small chance of getting cancer when eating chicken and fish, and in some cases may even fight cancer. In this connection, to the happy eating a burger recommended interspersed with chicken, seafood, vegetables, and mushrooms (Anonympus, 1999).
Currently some of the mushrooms used as drugs to fight cholesterol, cancer, and AIDS. Active compounds contained mushrooms reportedly can be as antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral can boost the immune system and can kill insects and nematodes. In 1960, the researchers managed to find some mushrooms as an antitumor effect. The active component in question is polysaccharida, and in particular is a Beta - D - glucans. As a standardized product of the oyster mushroom (Plurotus ostreatus and P. eryngii) called Plovastin the market as a cholesterol-lowering supplements. Plovastin is the active component of statins, as well inhibit the metabolism of cholesterol in the human body.
Results of the study Bobek (1999) from the Research Institute of Nutrition, Bratislava on "Natural products with anti-oxidant hypolipemic and effect". Studies have been conducted in a group with 57 men: women = 1:1, age middle-aged, with cases of hyperlipoproteinemia. During one month they consume 10 grams of oyster mushrooms on a regular basis. Conclusion, statistically very promising, namely serum cholesterol and down 12.6 percent and 27.2 percent triglycerol down. Oyster mushrooms also have antioxidant effects with lower results in peroxidation in erythrocytes.
Beta-1, 3/1-6-Glucan polysaccharida naturally derived from the intensively studied since 1950 as an antitumor and immunostimulating device (trigger immunity). Pleuran is a Beta-1.3 / 1-6-Glucan isolated from oyster mushrooms that have a high content of polysaccharida, commonly used for creams, ointments, suspensions, and powders for skin care in the world by researchers and cosmetics companies for formulation (Example; Estee Lauder and Clinique). Concentration from 0.5 to 2.00 percent. This facial treatment is useful to bind water, moisten the skin and anti-inflammatory. Experiments on 121 patients with chronic acne, given daily for 21 days, his condition improved results are 73.5 percent, 18.2 percent of total recovered.